Review of forms of corrosion and mitigation techniques: A visual guide
Keywords:Corrosion, Corrosion mechanism, Metals, Mitigation methods
Over the years, issues relating to corrosion have been a serious challenge confronting effective scientific and engineering applications of metallic materials in the industry. Annual loss due to corrosion issues has been quite alarming as it runs into trillions of dollars. In this review, forms of corrosion, factors affecting each form, mechanism of formation, and different aggressive environments that propagate corrosion have been identified. Mitigation techniques against this threat were all discussed, especially those involving the use of eco-friendly, cheap, available, and non-toxic materials. It was observed that the principle, process, and conditions governing each form of corrosion must be well understood before it can be effectively mitigated. This can be done either by proper material selection and design, environmental measures, modification and engineering design, modification of corrosive media, use of inhibitors, or sacrificial and protective coatings. However, adequate knowledge of the environment and nature of metal to be deployed in such an environment is essential in ensuring such material's protection, safety, and durability. For efficient and effective corrosion prevention and control, these mitigation techniques can either be implored exclusively or collectively depending on the material's nature and the setting in which it will be used.
M.E. Khadija, M.A. Shima & A.A. Hamedh, “Green Methods for Corrosion Control Chapter”, in Corrosion Inhibitors, Principles and Recent Applications, Mahmood Aliofkhazraei (Ed.), InTech, 2018, pp. 62. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72762.
Liberty Intercept Blog, “Top Two Corrosion Definition” (2023). Retrieved online on https://www.libertypackaging.com/corrosion/blog/bid/84346.
A. Mohamed & M. Migahed, Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. 2020. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9783527822140
P.R. Roberge, “Material Performance Corrosion Basics: Corrosion and the Environment”, (2020), Retrieved from https://www.materialsperformance.com/articles/corrosion-basics/2020/03/corrosion-basics-corrosion-and-the-environment.
American Galvanizer Association, “The Annual Cost of Corrosion to Ohio” (2007), Retrieved from URL: http://www.brown.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Ohio Corrosion.pdf.
NACE International, “NACE-International Cost of corrosion study unveiled” Mater Perf. 2 20 (2002). http://impact.nace.org/documents/ccsupp.pdf
R. Bhaskaran, L. Bhalla & V. Sarin, “Cost of corrosion protection in Indian oil & petroleum products transmission pipelines: A case study” International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research 14 (2016) 5169. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307856473 Cost of corrosion protection in Indian oil petroleum products transmission pipelines - A case study
M.V. Biezma & J.R. San Cristóbal, “Methodology to study cost of corrosion” Corrosion Engineering, Science, and Technology 40 (2005) 344. https://doi.org/10.1179/174327805X75821
P.A.L. Anawe, O.S.I. Fayomi & A.P.I. Popoola, “Investigation of microstructural and physical characteristics of nanocomposite tin oxide-doped Al 3+ in Zn 2+ based composite coating by DAECD technique”, Results in Physics 7 (2017) 777. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.01.035
N.N.M. Ajoku, O.S.I. Fayomi, Olanrewaju & D. Olusanyan, “A mini review on the dependent factor causing corrosion crises: The pictorial perspective” IOP Conference Service: Materials Science and Engineering 1107 (2021) 012077. https://doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1107/1/01207
D. Olsen, “Material Applications; Corrosion Types” (2020) Retrieved from marketing.metaltek.com:https://www.metaltek.com/blog/material-applications-corrosion- types/?hsamptrue).
R. Kant, P.S. Chauhan, G. Bhatt& S Bhattacharya. “Corrosion Monitoring and Control in Aircraft: A Review” Chapter 3, (2019), 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3290-6 3
C. Hoffman, “20,000-Hour Tune-up Air and Space Smithsonian”, Environmental Science 12 (1997) 39. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/20%2C000-HOUR-TUNEUP-Hoffman/d98e3487756c5b8ee14d769a816973887fa8c8a1
C. Cabrillac, J.S. Leach, & A. Pourbaix “The cost of corrosion in the EEC”, Metals and Materials 3 (1987) 533. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-cost-of-corrosion-in-the-EEC-Cabrillac-Leach/ecbce89760c5e0c13bfd2d12c02fbc315c6c5fe0
K.R.Trethewey & P.R. Roberge, “Corrosion management in the twenty-first century” British Corrosion Journal 30 (1995) 192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/000705995798113925
S. Hari Kumar, S. Karthikeyan, P. A. Jeeva & G. Sundaramali, “A Revıew on Corrosion Inhibition of aluminum with Special Reference to Green Inhibitors” International Journal of Recent Scientific Research 3 (2012) 61. http://www.recentscientific.com
K.A. Natarajan, “Corrosion: Introduction – Definitions and Types” [Internet]. NPTEL Web Course: (2014) 1. https://nptel.ac.in/content/storage2/courses/11310 8051/module1/lecture1.pdf
P. Hammonds, “Chapter 4 An Introduction to Corrosion and its Prevention” Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics 28 (1989) 233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0069-8040(08)70400-X
I.G. Akande, O.O. Oluwole & O.S.I. Fayomi, “Optimizing the defensive characteristics of mild steel via the electrodeposition of Zn-Si3N4 reinforcing particles”, Defense Technology 15 (2019) 526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dt.2018.11.001
O.S.I. Fayomi & A.P.I. Popoola, “Effect of some process variables on zinc coated low carbon steel substrates”, Scientific Research and Essay 6 (2011) 4264. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE11.777
P. Zarras & J.D. Stenger-Smith “1 - Corrosion processes and strategies for prevention: An introduction” Handbook of Smart Coating for Materials Protection 2014 (2014) 3. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857096883.1.3
A.A. Daniyan, I.E. Umoru & O.S.I Fayomi, “Structural evolution, optoelectrical and corrosion properties of electrodeposited WO 3 integration on Zn-TiO 2 electrolyte for defense super application”, Defense Technology 14 (2018) 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dt.2018.06.015
A. Jayaraman, M. Arun, “Overview of Corrosion and Advanced Corrosion Prevention Techniques”, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development 5 (2017) 527. https://www.academia.edu/35618792/Overview of Corrosion and Advanced Corrosion Prevention Techniques
A. Biedermann, G. Williams, R.D. Kane, D.C. Eden, D.A. Eden. & E.A. Trillo, “The new technology provides real-time corrosion monitoring”, Oil and Gas Journal 103 (2005) 56. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/294753945 New technology provides real-time corrosion monitoring
L.T. Popoola, A.S. Grema, G.K. Latinwo, B. Gutti, & A.S. Balogun, “Corrosion problems during oil and gas production and its mitigation”, International Journal of Industrial Chemistry 4 (2013) 35. https://doi:10.1186/2228-5547-4-35
G. Palanisamy, “Corrosion Inhibitors” Material Science (2019) IntechOpen Limited, London, United Kingdom, 2019, pp 1-25 https://doi:10.5772/intechopen.80542.
B. Nimmo & G. Hinds “Beginners guide to corrosion” NPL, Toddington 2003, pp 1-10 https://pdf4pro.com/amp/view/beginners-g
A.M. Nagham, A.N. Mahmood, B, Muhammed, M. Noorhan & H. Ali, “Review on Corrosion and Rust Inhibition of Machines in Chemical Engineering Field” International Journal of Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics, 5 (2019) 15. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334234100 Review on Corrosion and Rust Inhibition of Machines in Chemical Engineering Field
EONCOAT (2017). Corrosion Prevention Techniques Throughout History. Retrieved from https://eoncoat.com/corrosion-prevention-techniques-throughout-history
NACE International (2021). Forms of Corrosion. https://www.nace.org/resources/what-is- corrosion/forms-of-corrosion.
T. Dawson, V. Johnson, M. Morabito, M. Schultz, & G.W. Swain “EN380 Naval Materials Science and Engineering Course Notes”, U.S Naval Academy, 2007, Chapter 5, pp 1-250. https://www.usna.edu/NAOE/academics/en380.php
EONCOAT “Different Types of corrosion that you can see. EONCOAT LLC 3337 Air Park Road #6 Fuquay-Varina, NC 27526 (2017). Retrieved from: https://eoncoat.com/corrosion-that-you-can- see/
T.E. Perez, “Corrosion in the oil and gas industry: An increasing challenge for materials”, The Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Material Society 65 (2013) 1033. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-013-0675-3
American Galvanizers Association, Protecting Steel for a Sustainable Future (2021). Retrieved from https://galvanizeit.org/corrosion/corrosion-science.
D. Brondel, R. Edwards, A. Hayman, D. Hill, S. Mehta & T, Semerad, “Corrosion in the oil industry”, Oilfield Review 6 (1994) 4. Journal ID: ISSN 0923-1730; CODEN: OIREE7. https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/7250265
M. Ash & I. Ash, Handbook of Corrosion Inhibitors, Texas, Houston, Synapse Information Resources, USA, 2000, pp 1 - 495. https://books.google.com.ng/books/about/Handbook of Corrosion Inhibitors.html?id=Er5RAAAAMAAJ&redir esc=y
G.P.l. Gates & C.F. Parent, “Water quality control presents a challenge in giant Wilmington Field”, Oil Gas Journal 74 (1976) 11.
W.A. Hamilton, “Sulphate Reducing Bacteria and Anaerobic Corrosion”, Ann. Rev. Microbiol 39 (1985) 195. https://doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.39.100185.001211
I.N. Etim, J. Dong, J. Wei, C. Nan, D.B. Pokharel, A.J. Umoh, D. Xu, M. Su, & W. Ke, “Effect of organic quaternary ammonium salts on mitigating corrosion of reinforced steel induced by SRB in mild alkaline simulated concrete pore solution” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.10.006
H. Castaneda & X. D. Benetton, “SRB-biofilm influence in active corrosion sites formed at the steel-electrolyte interface when exposed to artificial seawater conditions”, Corrosion Science 50 (2008) 1169. https://doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2007.11.032
M. Wu, K. Gong & F. Xie, “Effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria and stress on corrosion behavior of X100 steel in seawater mud environment”, J. Electroanalytical Chemistry 886 (2021) 115129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2021.115129
I.N. Etim, J. Dong, J. Wei, J. Dong, D. Xu, N. Chen, X. Wei, M. Su & W. Ke, “Mitigation of the corrosion-causing Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans biofilm using an organic silicon quaternary ammonium salt in alkaline media simulated concrete pore solutions”, Biofouling 34 (2018) 1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2018.1547377
H. Liu & Y.F. Cheng, “Mechanism of microbiologically influenced corrosion of X52 pipeline steel in a wet soil containing sulfate-reduced bacteria”, Electrochimica Acta 253 (2017) 368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2017.09.089
I.N. Etim, D.I. Njoku, P.C. Uzoma, S.K. Kolawole, O.S. Olarele, O.O. Ekarenem, B.O. Okonkwo, A.I. Ikeuba, I.I. Udoh, C.N. Njoku, I.P. Etim & W. Emori, “Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: A Concern for Oil and Gas Sector in Africa”, Chemistry Africa 6 (2022) 779. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42250-022-00550-x
I.N. Etim, J. Dong, J. Wei, J. Dong, N. Chen, E.F. Daniel, D.B. Subedi, D. Xu, A.P. Yadav, M. Su & W. Ke, “Mitigation of sulfate–reducing attack on the corrosion of 20SiMn steel rebar in sulphoaluminate concrete using organic silicon quaternary ammonium salt”, Construction and Building Materials 257 (2020) 119047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119047
J.S. Smith & J.D.A. Miller, “Nature of sulfides and their corrosive effect on ferrous metals: a review” British Corrosion Journal 10 (1975) 136 https://doi.org/10.1179/000705975798320701
B. Anandkumar, R.P. George, S. Maruthamuthu, N. Parvathavarthini & U. K. Mudali, “Corrosion characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the role of molecular biology in SRB studies: an overview”, Corrs. Rev (2016) 1. https://doi.10.1515/corrrev-2015-0055
C.A.H. Von Wolzogen Kuhr, “Unity of anaerobic and aerobic iron corrosion process in soil”, Corrosion 17 (1961) 293t. https://doi.org/10.5006/0010-9312-17.6.119
Gibson Stainless and Specialty INC “Corrosion Types and Prevention”, (2017), Retrieved from https://www.gibsonstainless.com/types-of-corrosion.html.
E.D. Fontes, B. Nistad, “COMSOL White Papers Modeling Corrosion and Corrosion Protection” 1 (2019) 11. Retrieved from apersCorrosionProtection.pdf? https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/5764240/Materials%20Performance%20Husna/COMSOL WhitePhsfp=945447359& hssc=251652889.1.1.
A. Groysman, A. Kaufman, B. Feldman & R. Balid, “Hydrogen damage monitoring and prevention in the Oil Refinery” NACE – International Corrosion Conference Series 2 (2011) 934. https://cris.biu.ac.il/en/publications/hydrogen-damage-and-prevention-in-the-oil-refinery-2
CORROSIONPEDIA (2021). Bimetallic Corrosion Basics. Retrieved from https://www.corrosionpedia.com/14/6775/corrosion/bimetallic-corrosion-basics.
L. Xu, Y. Xin, L. Ma, H. Zhang, Z, Lin & X, Li “Challenges and solution of cathodic protection for marine ships”, Corrosion Communications 2 (2021) 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corcom.2021.08.003
Special Piping Materials (2021). How to Prevent Corrosion. Retrieved from https://specialpipingmaterials.com/how-to-prevent-corrosion/
V. Alvarado & E. Manrique, “Enhanced Oil Recovery: An updated review” Energies 3 (2010) 1529. https://doi.org/10.3390/en3091529.
R.G. Moore, S. A. Mehta & M.G. Ursenbach, “A guide to high-pressure air injection (HPAI) based oil recovery”, SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, April (2002) https://doi.org/10.2523/75207-ms.
X. Zhong, W. Lu, H. Yang, M. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Hu, Z. Zhang & D. Zeng, “Oxygen corrosion of N80 steel under laboratory conditions simulating high-pressure air injection: Analysis of corrosion products”, Journal of petroleum Science and Engineer 172 (2019) 162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.09.058.
M.R Fassihi, R.G. Moore, S.A. Mehta & M.G. Ursenbach, “Safety considerations for high-pressure air injection into light-oil reservoirs and performance of the Holt Sand Unit Project” SPE Production and Operation 31 (2016) 197. https://doi.org/10.2118/169168-pa.
V.S. Sastri, “Corrosion Inhibitors: Principles and Application”, Anti Corrosion Methods and Materials 49 (2002) 1. https://doi.org/10.1108/acmm.2002.12849cae.001
A. Groysman, Corrosion for every day, Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, 2010, pp. 368. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3477-9
N Alhaboubi, “Performance of Cathodic Protection for Pipelines”, (2014), Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/figure.Figure-2-2-Uniform-Corrosion-10 fig 293817799
NACE Standard Practice SPO169-2013, “Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems, NACE International, Houston, TX, USA, (2013), pp. 60. https://vdocuments.site/nace-sp-0169-2013.html
A. Groysman, “Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil, Gas, Refining and Petrochemical Industry”, Koronze a Ocharana Material 61 (2017) 100. https://doi.10.1515/kom-2017-0013
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, “Best management practices for the mitigation of internal corrosion in oil effluent pipeline systems”, Annual report 0027 (2018), CAPP, Calgary. https://www.capp.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Mitigation of internal corrosion in oil effluent pipeline syst-322045.pdf
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Christopher Ikechukwu Ekeocha, Ikenna Benedict Onyeachu, Ini-Ibehe Nabuk Etim, Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.