African Scientific Reports <p><em>African Scientific Reports</em> is a peer reviewed, open access, inter- and multidisciplinary scientific journal that is dedicated to expanding access to African research, increasing intra-African scientific collaboration, and building academic research capacity in Africa. The journal aims to provide a modern, highly-visible platform for publishing pan-African research and welcomes submissions from all areas of the natural sciences, psychology, medicine and engineering.</p> Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences en-US African Scientific Reports 2955-1625 <div class="page"> <div class="page"> <p>African Scientific Reports (ASR)<em> is</em> published under the <a href=""><strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY-NC) license</strong>.</a> This license was developed to facilitate open access, namely, it allows articles to be freely downloaded and to be re-used and re-distributed without restriction, as long as the original work is correctly cited. More specifically, anyone may copy, distribute or reuse these articles, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article, mine the article even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s).</p> </div> </div> Phytoremediation and Bioconcentration of Mineral and Heavy metals in Zea mays Inter-planted with Striga hermonthica in Soils from Mechanic Village Wukari <p>Phytoremediation involves the use of plants to remediate contaminated sites. This study evaluates the effect of phytoremediation on mineral and heavy metal concentration in agricultural soil within the vicinity of mechanic village Wukari using Zea mays interplanted with <em>Striga hermonthica</em> (SMV-MS), Zea mays alone (SMV-M), Zea mays inter-planted with <em>Striga hermonthica</em> alongside the application of fertilizer (SMV-MSF) and Zea mays alone alongside fertilizer application (SMV-MF). The bioconcentration of mineral and heavy metal and their translocation factors from the root to shoot of maize plants were estimated using empirical models. The result reveals that the efficiency of phytoextraction of the mineral and heavy metals were within the range: P (3.12 – 44.71 %), K (16.89 – 96.32 %), Mg (0.013 – 94.12 %), Mn (2.31 – 99.98 %), Si (20.92 – 52.07 %), Zn (2.74 – 21.65 %), Pb (10.44 – 100 %), Cd (0.75 – 42.85 %), Fe (7.42 – 98.57 %) and Al (19.14 – 98.69 %) respectively. The mean root and shoot bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of K, Mg, Mn and Al were greater than one indicating higher accumulation of the elements in the root and shoot of the maize plants. The root BCF of the elements was generally in the order: Mn &gt; K &gt; Mg &gt; Cd &gt; S i &gt; Al &gt; P &gt; Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Pb while the shoot BCF was in the order: Mn &gt; K &gt; Mg &gt; Al &gt; Fe &gt; Cd &gt; S i &gt; P &gt; Zn &gt; Pb. The mean root to shoot translocation factors (TF) of P, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Al were greater than one indicating effective translocation of the elements from the root to shoots. The translocation factors were generally in the order: Fe &gt; Al &gt; Pb &gt; Mn &gt; Zn &gt; P &gt; Cd &gt; Mg &gt; S i &gt; K.</p> E. A. Yerima A. U. Itodo R. Sha’Atob R. A. Wuana G. O. Egah S. P. Ma’ajia Copyright (c) 2022 E. A. Yerima, A. U. Itodo, R. Sha’Atob, R. A. Wuana, G. O. Egah, S. P. Ma’ajia 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 60–72 60–72 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.9 Convergence and Stability of the Ishikawa Iterative Process for a class of ϕ-quasinonexpansive Mappings <p>The paper analyzes the convergence of Ishikawa iteration to the fixed point of a class of '-quasinonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces, as well as the stability of the Ishikawa iteration used in approximating the fixed point. The work not only confirmed Ishikawa iteration’s convergence and stability to the fixed point of '-quasinonexpansive mappings, but it also pointed the way for future research in the estimate of fixed points of ϕ-quasinonexpansive mappings.</p> F. D. Ajibade G. Akinbo M. O. Ajisope M. O. Fatai Copyright (c) 2022 F. D. Ajibade, G. Akinbo, M. O. Ajisope, M. O. Fatai 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 73–80 73–80 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.21 Hybrid Optimization Technique for Solving Economic Dispatch Problem: A Case Study of Nigerian Thermal Power System <p>Economic Dispatch Problem (EDP) is a power system optimization problem that is required to be solved accurately using an efficient optimization technique. Hybrid optimization solutions have provided better optimum results than either deterministic or non-deterministic optimization methods. The hybridization of both Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bat Algorithm (BA) to for Hybrid Particle Swarm Bat Algorithm (H-PS-BA) optimization technique for solving EDP of Nigerian 21 thermal generating station power system was carried out in this work. The result of the work revealed that H-PS-BA performed better and gave the best optimal generation costs when compared to other methods such as PSO, Interior Point Method and BA.</p> Gafari Abiola Adepoju Muniru Olajide Okelola Muhammed Adekilekun Tijani Copyright (c) 2022 Gafari Abiola Adepoju, Muniru Olajide Okelola, Muhammed Adekilekun Tijani 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 81–87 81–87 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.28 Effect of Phthalonitrile and Alum on Flame Retardation Properties of 100% Cotton Fabric <p>Speculations have it that phthalonitrile imparts flame retardancy on substrates. This study aimed to investigate the activities of phthalonitrile as flame retardant on 100% cotton fabric. The fabric samples tested were cut into 25:4 x 7 cm pieces, scoured, dried, and weighed. They were then impregnated with different concentrations of phthalonitrile in different solvents (benzene and acetone) and emulsion alongside alum dissolved in water. At the same time, the untreated fabric was used as a control. All the impregnated pieces of fabric were dried at room temperature and reweighed. The fabrics were subjected to add-on%, after flame time, after-glow time, and % char formation tests. The results showed that cotton-tested flame retardant properties increase with the increase in the concentration of phthalonitrile. Phthalonitrile has flame retardant properties on 100% cotton fabric.</p> E. U. Chukwuegbo E. Agboeze C. C. Ogbuanu S. Amujiogu Copyright (c) 2022 E. U. Chukwuegbo, E. Agboeze, C. C. Ogbuanu, S. Amujiogu 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 88–94 88–94 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.32 Atomistic Simulation of the Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of some Nano-Crystalline Metals <p>For materials with high ductility, malleability and conductivity, temperature will have significant impact on the material properties. This is especially true for pure elemental metals which have a wide range of applications due to their ultrahigh strengths. Recently, the study of damage mechanism at the nano- and micro level has attracted a significant interest and research. However, the current understanding of deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals in relation to atomic structure and behavior is insufficient. In this study, atomistic simulation of uniaxial tension at nano-scale was performed at a fixed rate of loading (500 ms^-1) on some nano-crystalline face centered cubic metals (Al, Cu, and Ni), to study the nature of tensile deformation at different temperatures using the embedded-atomic method (EAM) potential function. The simulation results show a rapid increase in the stress up to a maximum value followed by a sharp drop when the nanocrystal fails by ductile dislocation. The drop in the stress-strain curves can be attributed to the rearrangement of atoms to a new or modified crystalline structure. Additional simulations were run to study the effects of temperature on the stress-strain curve of nano-crystals. The result shows that increasing temperature weakens the ductility of these nanomaterials. In this investigation, the strain corresponding to yielding stress is observed to be lower with increasing temperature. Finally, the evolution of crystalline microstructure during the entire tensile process was investigated. The atomistic simulation result of tensile deformation at nanoscale obtained in this study agree with plasticity phenomenon observed in macroscale.</p> Isaiah Eze Igwe Yusuf Tajuddeen Batsari Copyright (c) 2022 Isaiah Eze Igwe, Yusuf Tajuddeen Batsari 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 95–102 95–102 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.33 Extraction and Characterization of Pharmaceutical Grade Microcrystalline Cellulose From Bambara Nut (Voandzeia Subterranean (L) Thousars) Husk <p>Microcrystalline cellulose is a vital ingredient in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In this study, Bambara nutshell microcrystalline cellulose (BNS-MCC) was prepared by acid hydrolysis modification of Bambara nutshell alpha-cellulose pulp. The sample was subjected to sodium hydroxide pulping (2.0% and 17.5% NaOH respectively) and a multistage pulping treatment using 3.5% nitric acid. The analysis results showed that the pulping method was effective for substantial removal of lignin with a 14.416% yield of alpha-cellulose pulp. The organoleptic and physicochemical properties of BNS-MCC were examined. The prepared BNS-MCC powder was examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Diffractometer (XRD). The sample’s powder flow properties (true density, Hausner index, Carr’s index, angle of repose,<br />powder porosity, loss on drying, and moisture sorption capacity) were (1.216g/mL, 1.34, 25.75%, 39.80o, 64.7%, and 46.81%). The results of the analysis of the BNS-MCC compared well with commercial grades and conformed to US Pharmacopeia (USP) and British Pharmacopeia specifications. This result shows that Bambara nutshells have potential application for pharmaceutical grade cellulose production used in direct compression tableting.</p> E. Agboeze N. P. Ani E. O. Omeje Copyright (c) 2022 E. Agboeze, N. P. Ani, E. O. Omeje 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 103–114 103–114 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.31 Forcasting Natural Gas Consumption in Nigeria using the Modified Grey Model (MGM(1,1,⊗b)) <p>Accurate prediction of the natural gas consumption in Nigeria is crucial to Gas management. This study utilizes the improved Grey model (MGM(1,1,⊗b)), which is an improvement of the modified Grey model (MGM(1,1)), to forecast the natural gas consumption of Nigeria for the year 2021 to 2025. A secondary data retrieved from the NNPC 2019 annual statistics bulletin was used to build a model for this prediction. Noting that MGM(1,1) model uses the Grey action quantity as a unique real number which do not reflect the uncertainty nature of Grey systems. A model (MGM(1,1,⊗b)) was developed such that it extends the MGM(1,1) model to retain the uncertainty nature of Grey systems. The new modified Grey model (MGM(1,1,⊗b)) was used to make prediction of the natural gas consumption of Nigeria and the results shows that the (MGM(1,1,⊗b)) model gives a prediction interval which the actual value is bracketed. This implies that natural gas consumption of Nigeria for 2021 to 2025 lies within the (MGM(1,1,⊗b)) model prediction values for the same year.</p> Samuel O. Obi Imam Akeyede Copyright (c) 2022 Samuel O. Obi, Imam Akeyede 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 115–122 115–122 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.18 Atmospheric Physics; Air Pollution Monitoring and Analysis Using Purple Air Data <p>Air pollution has become one of the agents that leads to the cause of life-threatening diseases in our contemporary world<strong>. </strong>Among the major air pollutants is the Particulate Matters PM<strong><sub>2.5</sub></strong> and PM<strong><sub>10.0</sub></strong>. Long-time exposure to fine particles PM<sub>2.5 </sub>and PM<strong><sub>10.0 </sub></strong>in the environment has been linked to serious respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this research is to find the concentration of PM in some selected areas in Nigeria (Africa) namely; Lagos, Rivers and Abuja using Purpleair real time data for 12 weeks duration from 1<sup>st</sup> November 2021 to 31<sup>st</sup> January 2022. Findings have shown that among the study areas, Port Harcourt has the highest concentration of Particulate Matters followed by Abuja with a 12-weekly average PM<strong><sub>2.5</sub></strong>_CF1, PM<strong><sub>10.0</sub></strong>_CF1 and PM<strong><sub>2.5</sub></strong>_ATM to be 87.80 µg/m<sup>3</sup>, 101.76 µg/m<sup>3</sup> and 63.15 µg/m<sup>3</sup> respectively while Abuja has an average PM<strong><sub>2.5</sub></strong>_CF1, PM<strong><sub>10.0</sub></strong>_CF1 and PM<strong><sub>2.5</sub></strong>_ATM values of 70.51 µg/m<sup>3</sup>, 86.21 µg/m<sup>3</sup> and 52.07 µg/m<sup>3</sup> respectively. It was also found that the relationship between PM<strong><sub>2.5 </sub></strong>and PM<strong><sub>10.0</sub> </strong>showed a positive correlation with R = 0.99 indicating strong linear relationship.</p> Hammed A. Lawal Mukhtar I. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Hammed A. Lawal, Mukhtar I. Mohammed 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 123–132 123–132 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.42