African Scientific Reports <p><em>African Scientific Reports</em> is a peer reviewed, open access, inter- and multidisciplinary scientific journal that is dedicated to expanding access to African research, increasing intra-African scientific collaboration, and building academic research capacity in Africa. The journal aims to provide a modern, highly-visible platform for publishing pan-African research and welcomes submissions from all areas of the natural sciences, psychology, medicine and engineering.</p> en-US <div class="page"> <div class="page"> <p>African Scientific Reports (ASR)<em> is</em> published under the <a href=""><strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY-NC) license</strong>.</a> This license was developed to facilitate open access, namely, it allows articles to be freely downloaded and to be re-used and re-distributed without restriction, as long as the original work is correctly cited. More specifically, anyone may copy, distribute or reuse these articles, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article, mine the article even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s).</p> </div> </div> (Tolulope Latunde (PhD)) (Graxysoft LTD) Fri, 29 Apr 2022 05:22:42 -0400 OJS 60 High Performance Dye Sensitized Solar Cells by Plasmonic Enhancement of Silver Nanoparticles in ZnO Photoelectrode with Betanin Pigment <p>Metal nanoparticles (NPs) introduced in sensitive places in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) has demonstrated superior performance due to surface plasmon resonance e ect. Herein, a systematic investigation by introducing plasmonic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the photoanode of DSSCs with Zinc oxide (ZnO) is investigated. The broadening of the absorption band in the visible region is made possible using the natural pigments betanins. The combined e ect of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, XRD technique, SEM and solar simulator were used to explore the surface plasmon resonance effect. The ZnO photoanode without Ag- NPs shows a Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) of 0.156 %, Current Density (Jsc) of 0.477 mAcm<sup>-2</sup>, Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) of 0.762 V and Fill Factor (FF) of 0.431. On coating AgNPs on the pristine photoanode, the PCEs were improved significantly as compared with the pure ZnO based device. The AgNPs were deposited in cycles (2 cycles, 4 cycles and 6 cycles). The device with 2 cycles of Ag NPs, shows a PCE of 0.373 % which demonstrates an enhancement of 2.39 times to that of the prestine device.Also depositing 4 cycles of AgNPs results to PCE of 0.290 % which shows a leading of 0.134 % ahead of the reference PCE. With 6 cycles of AgNPs deposited on the photoanode of bare ZnO NPs, it results to PCE of 0.244%, FF of 0.592, Jsc of 0.572 mAcm<sup>-2</sup> and Voc of 0.722 V which also shows an enhancement of - 1.56 times, 1.37 times and 1.20 times in PCE, FF and Jsc over the device lacking AgNPs. These results show significant increment in performances of all the devices with silver inclusion. The performance is attributed to the reduced recombination of electron–hole pairs due to the Ag-ZnO junction and the generation of intense electric fields at the immediate vicinity of the sensitizer, resulting in enhanced light absorption.</p> Eli Danladi, Muhammad Y. Onimisi, Reuben M. Laah, Imosobomeh L. Ikhioya Copyright (c) 2022 African Scientific Reports Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Strategy to Select and Grade Efficient Dyes for Enhanced Photo-Absorption <p>In this paper, a simple strategy to select and grade efficient natural dye-sensitizers for photo-absorption is developed. The selection criteria help to choose efficient dye for construction of solar cell. On the other hand, the dye-grade technique based on light and matter interaction parameters (absorbance, anthocyanin, and light harvesting efficiency) further reduce the number of dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) production. The result shows that the dyes extracted from witch seed flower (Striga hermonthica), flamboyant flower (Delonix regia), and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) have dye-grade 1, are the most efficient photo-absorber for enhanced DSSC fabrication while guava peel dye has grade 10 being the least efficient dye. The selection criteria and dye-grade techniques provide surer way of getting promising dyes for effiective DSSC production than choosing the dyes randomly based on some features like their colors and abundance.</p> A. Babangida, J. B. Yerima, A. D. Ahmed, S. C. Ezike Copyright (c) 2022 African Scientific Reports Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Mechanical Characterization of Armchair and Zigzag Single-walled Carbon Nanotube <p>The stress-strain and Young’s modulus values of single-walled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs are modeled through linear finite element simulations and Matlab codes, in this study. Cylindrical zigzag and armchair single-walled are established as carbon nanostructures. An individual carbon nanotube (CNT) is simulated as a frame-like structure and the primary bonds between two nearest-neighboring carbon atoms are treated as 3D beam elements. The stiffness and the stress-strain curved of the SWCNTs are investigated. The effect domination of the nanotube diameter of the CNTs on Young’s modulus is studied. The simulation results acquired in this study are in good agreement with the experimental results. </p> R. Hamood, Samia Jamal, Zina A. Al Shadid Copyright (c) 2022 African Scientific Reports Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400 An Inertial Algorithm of Generalized f -Projection for Maximal Monotone Operators and Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problems in Banach Spaces <p>In this paper, we study a modified hybrid inertial algorithm of generalized f-projection for approximating maximal monotone operators and solutions of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results generalize and improve many recent announced results in the literature.</p> Lawal Umar, Tafida M. Kabir, Ibrahim U. Haruna Copyright (c) 2022 African Scientific Reports Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Spatial and Seasonal Estimation of Tropospheric Radio Refractivity in Nigeria <p>The spatial and seasonal variation of tropospheric radio refractivity of Nigeria has been studied using meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity and pressure) retrieved from the archive of the United States’ National Aeronautics for Space Administration (NASA). This work established a seasonal variation. The results also revealed an increase in radio refractivity from minimum of about 270N-units at Abadam to maximum of about 415N-units at Warri. The variation of radio refractivity is synchronous with rainfall in most of the stations especially those in the Guinea Savannah, Tropical Rainforest and Coastal areas where the effects of august break manifest vividly on the curves. Intense refractivity was measured mostly in the tropical rainforest and coastal areas. This could be attributed to the intensity of rain and the length of the wet season in those locations. The Sahel, Sudan and Guinea savannah which experience less rain with short period of wet season recorded reduced refractivity. Just like rainfall, the movement of Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) is also found to be linked to the variation of the radio refractivity. The northward movement of the ITD brings with it elevated refractivity while the southward movement leads to reduced refractivity. This is because the ITD is an element of two high pressure cells which influences its motion. Majorly, the seasonal variation is found to be the product of climate except in some high ground areas where the topography was found to be majorly responsible.</p> M. M. Tanko, M. S. Liman, W. L. Lumbi, U. S. Aliyu Copyright (c) 2022 African Scientific Reports Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400